Motivation Theories and Concepts

Motivation at the workplace forms a core goal for any organization’s management. It is believed that a direct link exists in between motivation and performance at work and questionnaires have been designed to determine encouraging elements in staff members (Palmer, 2007). Lindner (1998) says that inspiration is a psychological procedure that bestows function and direction on habits. A circumstance is utilized in this essay where a company offers variety training programs to guarantee that employees understand the value of working with a varied workforce, know the equal employment opportunity regulation, and are capable of attending to the difficulties of working in a multicultural workforce. It is pictured also that at this organization, involvement in these diversity training programs is compulsory and workers are required to take the training as often times as required till they pass. The training program lasts one day and is normally performed in a nice hotels and resort outside the work environment. Staff members are spent for the time they invest in the training program. Nevertheless, workers are not really inspired to perform well in this program. During the training, they put in the minimum level of effort, and a lot of individuals fall short the exam offered at the conclusion of the training program and then need to retake the training. This essay looks for to discover the expectancy and reinforcement concepts of motivation to explain why the employees in this company may not be inspired to perform well in the training program, and recommend enhancements in the program based upon these theories so that employees are inspired to understand the product, pass the test, and use the product in the work environment.

Expectancy Concept

According to the expectancy theory, an individual’s inspiration to vary effort is reached by ways of a logical computation in which people assess the circumstance they are in.

This concept suggests that people ask themselves three concerns: if their effort will equate into high efficiency; whether the performance will lead to an outcome; and whether the results are preferable. These 3 concerns reveal attention being paid to effort, efficiency and rewards, and their linked perceptions are labeled as expectancy, instrumentality and valence respectively (Bauer & & Erdogan, 2010)

. A manager has a number of options at his disposal to influence expectancy, instrumentality and valence in the employees so regarding encourage them to take part and pass the tests. Expectancy can be influenced by ensuring that the participating employees can understanding the product being instructed and that the environment in which they are taught facilitates good efficiency, as these elements might be causing them to fail. In addition, the participants should be urged into thinking that their efforts do make a difference to how they perform in the training. Instrumentality can be influenced by guaranteeing that great efficiency in the test is correctly rewarded and that the benefits are well advertised as being based entirely on efficiency. The benefits selected need to be attractive to the trainees and they need to cause perceptions of fairness so about influence valence. In addition the trainees have to be offered an array of incentives from which they can pick their choice (Bauer & & Erdogan, 2010)

The Reinforcement Concept

The reinforcement concept is based on the property that behavior is a function the repercussions that results from it. Four possible interventions emerge from the reinforcement theory and these involve positive reinforcement, adverse reinforcement, penalty and termination. Positive reinforcement intends to increase the frequency of the preferred habits by guaranteeing that favorable results instantly satisfy the excellent habits. The immediacy of the outcome is needed to provide an obvious link in between the habits and benefit. Negative reinforcement enhances the frequency of the desired behavior by getting rid of unpleasant outcomes when the wanted behavior is exhibited. Unfavorable ecological stimulus is preserved up until positive habits is shown. Negative habits can also be lowered by the extinction approach, which works by eliminating rewards after adverse habits is shown. An additional method for lowering unfavorable habits is with penalty, where unfavorable outcomes follow undesirable behaviors. When any of these reinforcement techniques are chosen, a correct reinforcement schedule should be executed. This pertains to deciding whether to utilize reinforcement constantly, for each nth time a desired habits is shown, or on an arbitrary schedule. There needs to be consistency, however, in order to enjoy long term advantages in the future (Bauer & & Erdogan, 2010; Zimmer,

1996). Furthermore, a systematic way needs to be used to execute reinforcement. The first step includes recognizing the behavior to be customized; we have recognized this habits as efficiency in the staff training program. We ought to then establish an efficiency baseline for the course and afterwards recognize the causative factors for non-performance and choose the results for different performance levels. After these actions are covered, a reinforcement intervention method need to them be executed. In our case, positive reinforcement needs to be utilized for great efficiency in the training program, such as offering buying vouchers to all those that pass the test. Constant non-performance needs to likewise be penalized by the issuance of cautioning letters to the culprits, or rejection of spend for the days squandered at the program. Fear, however, ought to not be used as a motivator as the long term results are typically adverse (Bauer & & Erdogan, 2010; McNamara, n.d.).

According to the expectancy theory, a person’s motivation to vary effort is shown up at by methods of a rational calculation in which people examine the situation they are in. Workers are interesteded in the link in between effort, performance and benefits. The perceptions linked to these linkages are identified as expectancy, instrumentality and valence respectively. To motivate the workers, one has to influence expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The reinforcement concept is based upon the premise that habits is a function the consequences that results from it. Four possible interventions emerge from the reinforcement concept and these include favorable reinforcement, adverse reinforcement, punishment and termination. When any of these reinforcement approaches are selected, an appropriate reinforcement schedule ought to be executed in an organized means.

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